Acquisitions: reflect all mergers and acquisitions activity, including the impact of acquisitions, divestitures and changes in ownership or control in consolidated subsidiaries. The impact of acquisitions related to our non-consolidated equity investees is reflected in our volume and, excluding our anchor bottlers, in our operating profit.
Anchor bottlers: The Pepsi Bottling Group (PBG), PepsiAmericas (PAS) and Pepsi Bottling Ventures (PBV).
Bottlers: customers to whom we have granted exclusive contracts to sell and manufacture certain beverage products bearing our trademarks within a specific geographical area.
Bottler Case Sales (BCS): measure of physical beverage volume shipped to retailers and independent distributors from both PepsiCo and our bottlers.
Bottler funding: financial incentives we give to our bottlers to assist in the distribution and promotion of our beverage products.
Concentrate Shipments and Equivalents (CSE): measure of our physical beverage volume shipments to bottlers, retailers and independent distributors. This measure is reported on our fiscal year basis.
Consumers: people who eat and drink our products.
CSD: carbonated soft drinks.
Customers: authorized bottlers and independent distributors and retailers.
Derivatives: financial instruments that we use to manage our risk arising from changes in commodity prices, interest rates, foreign exchange rates and stock prices.
Direct-Store-Delivery (DSD): delivery system used by us and our bottlers to deliver snacks and beverages directly to retail stores where our products are merchandised.
Effective net pricing: reflects the year-over-year impact of discrete pricing actions, sales incentive activities and mix resulting from selling varying products in different package sizes and in different countries.
Management operating cash flow: net cash provided by operating activities less capital spending plus sales of property, plant and equipment. It is our primary measure used to monitor cash flow performance.
Mark-to-market net gain or loss or impact: the change in market value for commodity contracts, that we purchase to mitigate the volatility in costs of energy and raw materials that we consume. The market value is determined based on average prices on national exchanges and recently reported transactions in the market place.
Marketplace spending: sales incentives offered through various programs to our customers and consumers (trade spending), as well as advertising and other marketing activities.
Servings: common metric reflecting our consolidated physical unit volume. Our divisions physical unit measures are converted into servings based on U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines for single-serving sizes of our products.
Transaction gains and losses: the impact on our consolidated financial statements of exchange rate changes arising from specific transactions.
Translation adjustment: the impact of converting our foreign affiliates financial statements into U.S. dollars for the purpose of consolidating our financial statements.