- Our Business
- Our Business Risks
- Our Critical Accounting Policies
- Our Financial Results
- Results of Operations -
- Results of Operations -
- Our Liquidity and
Our Business Risks
Demand for our products may be adversely affected by changes in consumer preferences and tastes or if we are unable to innovate or market our products effectively.
We are a consumer products company operating in highly competitive markets and rely on continued demand for our products. To generate revenues and profits, we must sell products that appeal to our customers and to consumers. Any significant changes in consumer preferences or any inability on our part to anticipate or react to such changes could result in reduced demand for our products and erosion of our competitive and financial position. Our success depends on our ability to respond to consumer trends, including concerns of consumers regarding health and wellness, obesity, product attributes and ingredients, and to expand into adjacent categories. For example, if we are unable to grow our core salty snack brands while expanding into adjacent categories like crackers, bread bites and baked snacks, our growth rate may be adversely affected. In addition, changes in product category consumption or consumer demographics could result in reduced demand for our products. Consumer preferences may shift due to a variety of factors, including the aging of the general population, changes in social trends, changes in travel, vacation or leisure activity patterns, weather, seasonal consumption cycles, negative publicity resulting from regulatory action or litigation against companies in our industry, a downturn in economic conditions or taxes specifically targeting the consumption of our products. Any of these changes may reduce consumers’ willingness to purchase our products. See also “Any damage to our reputation could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.”, “Changes in the legal and regulatory environment could limit our business activities, increase our operating costs, reduce demand for our products or result in litigation.”, “Unfavorable economic conditions in the countries in which we operate may have an adverse impact on our business results or financial condition.” and “Our financial performance could suffer if we are unable to compete effectively.”
Our continued success is also dependent on our product innovation, including maintaining a robust pipeline of new products and improving the quality of existing products, and the effectiveness of our advertising campaigns, marketing programs and product packaging. Although we devote significant resources to meet this goal, including the development of our Global Nutrition Group, there can be no assurance as to our continued ability to develop and launch successful new products or variants of existing products, to grow our nutrition business or to effectively execute advertising campaigns and marketing programs. In addition, both the launch and ongoing success of new products and advertising campaigns are inherently uncertain, especially as to their appeal to consumers. Our failure to successfully launch new products could decrease demand for our existing products by negatively affecting consumer perception of existing brands, as well as result in inventory write-offs and other costs.
Any damage to our reputation could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Maintaining a good reputation globally is critical to selling our branded products. Product contamination or tampering or the failure to maintain high standards for product quality, safety and integrity, including with respect to raw materials obtained from suppliers, may reduce demand for our products or cause production and delivery disruptions. If any of our products becomes unfit for consumption, misbranded or causes injury, we may have to engage in a product recall and/or be subject to liability. A widespread product recall or a significant product liability judgment could cause our products to be unavailable for a period of time, which could further reduce consumer demand and brand equity. Our reputation could also be adversely impacted by any of the following, or by adverse publicity (whether or not valid) relating thereto: the failure to maintain high ethical, social and environmental standards for all of our operations and activities; the failure to achieve our human, environmental and talent sustainability goals, including our goals with respect to sodium, saturated fat and sugar reduction and the development of our nutrition business; or our environmental impact, including use of agricultural materials, packaging, energy use and waste management, or our responses to any of the foregoing. In addition, water is a limited resource in many parts of the world. Our reputation could be damaged if we do not act responsibly with respect to water use. Failure to comply with local laws and regulations, to maintain an effective system of internal controls or to provide accurate and timely financial statement information could also hurt our reputation. Damage to our reputation or loss of consumer confidence in our products for any of these or other reasons could result in decreased demand for our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as require additional resources to rebuild our reputation.
Our financial performance could be adversely affected if we are unable to grow our business in developing and emerging markets or as a result of unstable political conditions, civil unrest or other developments and risks in the markets where we operate.
Our operations outside of the United States contribute significantly to our revenue and profitability, and we believe that our businesses in developing and emerging markets, particularly China, present an important future growth opportunity for us. However, there can be no assurance that our existing products, variants of our existing products or new products that we develop will be accepted or successful in any particular developing or emerging market, due to local competition, cultural differences or otherwise. If we are unable to expand our businesses in emerging and developing markets as a result of economic and political conditions, increased competition, an inability to acquire or form strategic business alliances or to make necessary infrastructure investments or for any other reason, our financial performance could be adversely affected. Unstable political conditions, civil unrest or other developments and risks in the markets where we operate, including in the Middle East and Egypt, could also have an adverse impact on our business results or financial condition. Factors that could adversely affect our business results in these markets include: import and export restrictions; foreign ownership restrictions; nationalization of our assets; regulations on the repatriation of funds which, from time to time, result in significant cash balances in countries such as Venezuela; and currency hyperinflation or devaluation. In addition, disruption in these markets due to political instability or civil unrest could result in a decline in consumer purchasing power, thereby reducing demand for our products. See also “Demand for our products may be adversely affected by changes in consumer preferences and tastes or if we are unable to innovate or market our products effectively.” and “Our financial performance could suffer if we are unable to compete effectively.”
Trade consolidation or the loss of any key customer could adversely affect our financial performance.
We must maintain mutually beneficial relationships with our key customers, including Wal-Mart, as well as other retailers, to effectively compete. There is a greater concentration of our customer base around the world, generally due to the continued consolidation of retail trade and the loss of any of our key customers, including Wal-Mart, could have an adverse effect on our financial performance. In addition, as retail ownership becomes more concentrated, retailers demand lower pricing and increased promotional programs. Further, as larger retailers increase utilization of their own distribution networks and private label brands, the competitive advantages we derive from our go-to-market systems and brand equity may be eroded. Failure to appropriately respond to these trends or to offer effective sales incentives and marketing programs to our customers could reduce our ability to secure adequate shelf space at our retailers and adversely affect our financial performance.
Changes in the legal and regulatory environment could limit our business activities, increase our operating costs, reduce demand for our products or result in litigation.
The conduct of our businesses, and the production, distribution, sale, advertising, labeling, safety, transportation and use of many of our products, are subject to various laws and regulations administered by federal, state and local governmental agencies in the United States, as well as to foreign laws and regulations administered by government entities and agencies in markets in which we operate. These laws and regulations and interpretations thereof may change, sometimes dramatically, as a result of political, economic or social events. Such regulatory environment changes may include changes in: food and drug laws; laws related to advertising and deceptive marketing practices; accounting standards; taxation requirements, including taxes specifically targeting the consumption of our products; competition laws; privacy laws; and environmental laws, including laws relating to the regulation of water rights and treatment. Changes in laws, regulations or governmental policy and the related interpretations may alter the environment in which we do business and, therefore, may impact our results or increase our costs or liabilities.
Governmental entities or agencies in jurisdictions where we operate may also impose new labeling, product or production requirements, or other restrictions. For example, studies are underway by various regulatory authorities and others to assess the effect on humans due to acrylamide in the diet. Acrylamide is a chemical compound naturally formed in a wide variety of foods when they are cooked (whether commercially or at home), including french fries, potato chips, cereal, bread and coffee. It is believed that acrylamide may cause cancer in laboratory animals when consumed in significant amounts. Studies are also underway by third parties to assess the health implications of carbonated soft drink consumption. If consumer concerns about acrylamide or carbonated soft drinks increase as a result of these studies, other new scientific evidence, or for any other reason, whether or not valid, demand for our products could decline and we could be subject to lawsuits or new regulations that could affect sales of our products, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are also subject to Proposition 65 in California, a law which requires that a specific warning appear on any product sold in California that contains a substance listed by that State as having been found to cause cancer or birth defects. If we were required to add warning labels to any of our products or place warnings in certain locations where our products are sold, sales of those products could suffer not only in those locations but elsewhere.
In many jurisdictions, compliance with competition laws is of special importance to us due to our competitive position in those jurisdictions. Regulatory authorities under whose laws we operate may also have enforcement powers that can subject us to actions such as product recall, seizure of products or other sanctions, which could have an adverse effect on our sales or damage our reputation.
In addition, we and our subsidiaries are party to a variety of legal and environmental remediation obligations arising in the normal course of business, as well as environmental remediation, product liability, toxic tort and related indemnification proceedings in connection with certain historical activities and contractual obligations of businesses acquired by our subsidiaries. Due to regulatory complexities, uncertainties inherent in litigation and the risk of unidentified contaminants on current and former properties of ours and our subsidiaries, the potential exists for remediation, liability and indemnification costs to differ materially from the costs we have estimated. We cannot assure you that our costs in relation to these matters will not exceed our established liabilities or otherwise have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
If we are not able to build and sustain proper information technology infrastructure, successfully implement our ongoing business transformation initiative or outsource certain functions effectively, our business could suffer.
We depend on information technology as an enabler to improve the effectiveness of our operations and to interface with our customers, as well as to maintain financial accuracy and efficiency. If we do not allocate and effectively manage the resources necessary to build and sustain the proper technology infrastructure, we could be subject to transaction errors, processing inefficiencies, the loss of customers, business disruptions, the loss of or damage to intellectual property through security breach, or the loss of sensitive data through security breach or otherwise.
We have embarked on multi-year business transformation initiatives to migrate certain of our financial processing systems to an enterprise-wide systems solution. There can be no certainty that these initiatives will deliver the expected benefits. The failure to deliver our goals may impact our ability to (1) process transactions accurately and efficiently and (2) remain in step with the changing needs of the trade, which could result in the loss of customers. In addition, the failure to either deliver the application on time, or anticipate the necessary readiness and training needs, could lead to business disruption and loss of customers and revenue.
In addition, we have outsourced certain information technology support services and administrative functions, such as payroll processing and benefit plan administration, to third-party service providers and may outsource other functions in the future to achieve cost savings and efficiencies. If the service providers that we outsource these functions to do not perform effectively, we may not be able to achieve the expected cost savings and may have to incur additional costs to correct errors made by such service providers. Depending on the function involved, such errors may also lead to business disruption, processing inefficiencies, the loss of or damage to intellectual property through security breach, the loss of sensitive data through security breach or otherwise, or harm employee morale.
Our information systems could also be penetrated by outside parties intent on extracting information, corrupting information or disrupting business processes. Such unauthorized access could disrupt our business and could result in the loss of assets.
Unfavorable economic conditions in the countries in which we operate may have an adverse impact on our business results or financial condition.
Many of the countries in which we operate, including the United States, have experienced and continue to experience unfavorable economic conditions. Our business or financial results may be adversely impacted by these unfavorable economic conditions, including: adverse changes in interest rates or tax rates; volatile commodity markets; contraction in the availability of credit in the marketplace, potentially impairing our ability to access the capital markets on terms commercially acceptable to us; the effects of government initiatives to manage economic conditions; reduced demand for our products resulting from a slowdown in the general global economy or a shift in consumer preferences for economic reasons or otherwise to regional, local or private label products or other economy products, or to less profitable channels; or a decrease in the fair value of pension assets that could increase future employee benefit costs and/or funding requirements of our pension plans. In addition, we cannot predict how current or worsening economic conditions will affect our critical customers, suppliers and distributors and any negative impact on our critical customers, suppliers or distributors may also have an adverse impact on our business results or financial condition.
Fluctuations in foreign exchange rates may have an adverse impact on our business results or financial condition.
We hold assets and incur liabilities, earn revenues and pay expenses in a variety of currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Because our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, the financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars. In 2010, our operations outside of the U.S. generated a significant portion of our net revenue. Fluctuations in foreign exchange rates may therefore adversely impact our business results or financial condition. See also “Market Risks” and Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements.
Our financial performance could suffer if we are unable to compete effectively.
The food and beverage industries in which we operate are highly competitive. We compete with major international food and beverage companies that, like us, operate in multiple geographic areas, as well as regional, local and private label manufacturers and other value competitors. In many countries where we do business, including the United States, The Coca-Cola Company is our primary beverage competitor. We compete on the basis of brand recognition, price, quality, product variety, distribution, marketing and promotional activity, convenience, service and the ability to identify and satisfy consumer preferences. If we are unable to compete effectively, we may be unable to gain or maintain share of sales or gross margins in the global market or in various local markets. This may have a material adverse impact on our revenues and profit margins. See also “Unfavorable economic conditions in the countries in which we operate may have an adverse impact on our business results or financial condition.”
Our operating results may be adversely affected by increased costs, disruption of supply or shortages of raw materials and other supplies.
We and our business partners use various raw materials and other supplies in our business, including apple and pineapple juice and other juice concentrates, aspartame, corn, corn sweeteners, flavorings, flour, grapefruits and other fruits, oats, oranges, potatoes, rice, seasonings, sucralose, sugar, vegetable and essential oils, and wheat. Our key packaging materials include plastic resins, including polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene resin used for plastic beverage bottles and film packaging used for snack foods, aluminum used for cans, glass bottles, closures, cardboard and paperboard cartons. Fuel and natural gas are also important commodities due to their use in our plants and in the trucks delivering our products. Some of these raw materials and supplies are available from a limited number of suppliers. We are exposed to the market risks arising from adverse changes in commodity prices, affecting the cost of our raw materials and energy. The raw materials and energy which we use for the production of our products are largely commodities that are subject to price volatility and fluctuations in availability caused by changes in global supply and demand, weather conditions, agricultural uncertainty or governmental controls. We purchase these materials and energy mainly in the open market. If commodity price changes result in unexpected increases in raw materials and energy costs, we may not be able to increase our prices to offset these increased costs without suffering reduced volume, revenue and operating results. In addition, we use derivatives to hedge price risk associated with forecasted purchases of raw materials. Certain of these derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting treatment can result in increased volatility in our net earnings in any given period due to changes in the spot prices of the underlying commodities. See also “Unfavorable economic conditions in the countries in which we operate may have an adverse impact on our business results or financial condition.”, “Market Risks” and Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements.
Disruption of our supply chain could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability and that of our suppliers, business partners, including our independent bottlers, contract manufacturers, independent distributors and retailers, to make, move and sell products is critical to our success. Damage or disruption to our or their manufacturing or distribution capabilities due to adverse weather conditions, government action, natural disaster, fire, terrorism, the outbreak or escalation of armed hostilities, pandemic, strikes and other labor disputes or other reasons beyond our or their control, could impair our ability to manufacture or sell our products. Failure to take adequate steps to mitigate the likelihood or potential impact of such events, or to effectively manage such events if they occur, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as require additional resources to restore our supply chain.
Climate change, or legal, regulatory or market measures to address climate change, may negatively affect our business and operations.
There is growing concern that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may have an adverse impact on global temperatures, weather patterns and the frequency and severity of extreme weather and natural disasters. In the event that such climate change has a negative effect on agricultural productivity, we may be subject to decreased availability or less favorable pricing for certain commodities that are necessary for our products, such as sugar cane, corn, wheat, rice, oats, potatoes and various fruits. We may also be subjected to decreased availability or less favorable pricing for water as a result of such change, which could impact our manufacturing and distribution operations. In addition, natural disasters and extreme weather conditions may disrupt the productivity of our facilities or the operation of our supply chain. The increasing concern over climate change also may result in more regional, federal and/or global legal and regulatory requirements to reduce or mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases. In the event that such regulation is enacted and is more aggressive than the sustainability measures that we are currently undertaking to monitor our emissions and improve our energy efficiency, we may experience significant increases in our costs of operation and delivery. In particular, increasing regulation of fuel emissions could substantially increase the distribution and supply chain costs associated with our products. As a result, climate change could negatively affect our business and operations. See also “Disruption of our supply chain could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.”
If we are unable to hire or retain key employees or a highly skilled and diverse workforce, it could have a negative impact on our business.
Our continued growth requires us to hire, retain and develop our leadership bench and a highly skilled and diverse workforce. We compete to hire new employees and then must train them and develop their skills and competencies. Any unplanned turnover or our failure to develop an adequate succession plan to backfill current leadership positions or to hire and retain a diverse workforce could deplete our institutional knowledge base and erode our competitive advantage. In addition, our operating results could be adversely affected by increased costs due to increased competition for employees, higher employee turnover or increased employee benefit costs.
A portion of our workforce belongs to unions. Failure to successfully renew collective bargaining agreements, or strikes or work stoppages could cause our business to suffer.
Many of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. These agreements expire on various dates. Strikes or work stoppages and interruptions could occur if we are unable to renew these agreements on satisfactory terms, which could adversely impact our operating results. The terms and conditions of existing or renegotiated agreements could also increase our costs or otherwise affect our ability to fully implement future operational changes to enhance our efficiency.
Failure to successfully complete or integrate acquisitions and joint ventures into our existing operations could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In 2010, we acquired PBG and PAS and we recently acquired approximately 77% of WBD. We also regularly evaluate opportunities for strategic growth through tuck-in acquisitions and joint ventures. Potential issues associated with these and other acquisitions and joint ventures could include, among other things, our ability to realize the full extent of the benefits or cost savings that we expect to realize as a result of the completion of the acquisition or the formation of the joint venture within the anticipated time frame, or at all; receipt of necessary consents, clearances and approvals in connection with the acquisition or joint venture; diversion of management’s attention from base strategies and objectives; and, with respect to acquisitions, our ability to successfully combine our businesses with the business of the acquired company in a manner that permits cost savings to be realized, including integrating the manufacturing, distribution, sales and administrative support activities and information technology systems among our company and the acquired company, motivating, recruiting and retaining executives and key employees, conforming standards, controls, procedures and policies, business cultures and compensation structures among our company and the acquired company, consolidating and streamlining corporate and administrative infrastructures, consolidating sales and marketing operations, retaining existing customers and attracting new customers, identifying and eliminating redundant and underperforming operations and assets, coordinating geographically dispersed organizations, and managing tax costs or inefficiencies associated with integrating our operations following completion of the acquisitions. In addition, acquisitions outside of the United States, including the WBD acquisition, increase our exposure to risks associated with foreign operations, including fluctuations in foreign exchange rates and compliance with foreign laws and regulations. If an acquisition or joint venture is not successfully completed or integrated into our existing operations, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements
We discuss expectations regarding our future performance, such as our business outlook, in our annual and quarterly reports, press releases, and other written and oral statements. These forward-looking statements are based on currently available information, operating plans and projections about future events and trends. They inherently involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those predicted in any such forward-looking statements. Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. The discussion of risks below and elsewhere in this report is by no means all inclusive but is designed to highlight what we believe are important factors to consider when evaluating our future performance.
We are exposed to market risks arising from adverse changes in:
• commodity prices, affecting the cost of our raw materials and energy;
• foreign exchange rates; and
• interest rates.
In the normal course of business, we manage these risks through a variety of strategies, including productivity initiatives, global purchasing programs and hedging strategies. Ongoing productivity initiatives involve the identification and effective implementation of meaningful cost-saving opportunities or efficiencies. Our global purchasing programs include fixed-price purchase orders and pricing agreements. See Note 9 for further information on our non-cancelable purchasing commitments. Our hedging strategies include the use of derivatives. Certain derivatives are designated as either cash flow or fair value hedges and qualify for hedge accounting treatment, while others do not qualify and are marked to market through earnings. Cash flows from derivatives used to manage commodity, foreign exchange or interest risks are classified as operating activities. We do not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes. We perform assessments of our counterparty credit risk regularly, including a review of credit ratings, credit default swap rates and potential nonperformance of the counterparty. Based on our most recent assessment of our counterparty credit risk, we consider this risk to be low. In addition, we enter into derivative contracts with a variety of financial institutions that we believe are creditworthy in order to reduce our concentration of credit risk and generally settle with these financial institutions on a net basis.
The fair value of our derivatives fluctuates based on market rates and prices. The sensitivity of our derivatives to these market fluctuations is discussed below. See Note 10 for further discussion of these derivatives and our hedging policies. See “Our Critical Accounting Policies” for a discussion of the exposure of our pension plan assets and pension and retiree medical liabilities to risks related to market fluctuations.
Inflationary, deflationary and recessionary conditions impacting these market risks also impact the demand for and pricing of our products.
We expect to be able to reduce the impact of volatility in our raw material and energy costs through our hedging strategies and ongoing sourcing initiatives.
Our open commodity derivative contracts that qualify for hedge accounting had a face value of $590 million as of December 25, 2010 and $151 million as of December 26, 2009. These contracts resulted in net unrealized gains of $46 million as of December 25, 2010 and net unrealized losses of $29 million as of December 26, 2009. At the end of 2010, the potential change in fair value of commodity derivative instruments, assuming a 10% decrease in the underlying commodity price, would have decreased our net unrealized gains in 2010 by $64 million.
Our open commodity derivative contracts that do not qualify for hedge accounting had a face value of $266 million as of December 25, 2010 and $231 million as of December 26, 2009. These contracts resulted in net gains of $26 million in 2010 and net losses of $57 million in 2009. At the end of 2010, the potential change in fair value of commodity derivative instruments, assuming a 10% decrease in the underlying commodity price, would have decreased our net gains in 2010 by $29 million.
Financial statements of foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars using period-end exchange rates for assets and liabilities and weighted-average exchange rates for revenues and expenses. Adjustments resulting from translating net assets are reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss within shareholders’ equity under the caption currency translation adjustment.
Our operations outside of the U.S. generate over 45% of our net revenue, with Mexico, Canada, Russia and the United Kingdom comprising approximately 20% of our net revenue. As a result, we are exposed to foreign currency risks. During 2010, favorable foreign currency contributed 1 percentage point to net revenue growth, primarily due to appreciation of the Mexican peso, Canadian dollar and Brazilian real, partially offset by depreciation of the Venezuelan bolivar. Currency declines against the U.S. dollar which are not offset could adversely impact our future results.
In addition, we continue to use the official exchange rate to translate the financial statements of our snack and beverage businesses in Venezuela. We use the official rate as we currently intend to remit dividends solely through the government-operated Foreign Exchange Administration Board (CADIVI). As of the beginning of our 2010 fiscal year, the results of our Venezuelan businesses were reported under hyperinflationary accounting. This determination was made based upon Venezuela’s National Consumer Price Index (NCPI) which indicated cumulative inflation in Venezuela in excess of 100% for the three-year period ended November 30, 2009. Consequently, the functional currency of our Venezuelan entities was changed from the bolivar fuerte (bolivar) to the U.S. dollar. Effective January 11, 2010, the Venezuelan government devalued the bolivar by resetting the official exchange rate from 2.15 bolivars per dollar to 4.3 bolivars per dollar; however, certain activities were permitted to access an exchange rate of 2.6 bolivars per dollar. Effective June 2010, the Central Bank of Venezuela began accepting and approving applications, under certain conditions, for non-CADIVI exchange transactions at the weighted-average implicit exchange rate obtained from the Transaction System for Foreign Currency Denominated Securities (SITME). As of December 25, 2010, this rate was 5.3 bolivars per dollar. We continue to use all available options, including CADIVI, SITME and bond auctions, to obtain U.S. dollars to meet our operational needs. In 2010, the majority of our transactions were remeasured at the 4.3 exchange rate, and as a result of the change to hyperinflationary accounting and the devaluation of the bolivar, we recorded a one-time net charge of $120 million in the first quarter of 2010. In 2010, our operations in Venezuela comprised 4% of our cash and cash equivalents balance and generated less than 1% of our net revenue. As of January 1, 2011, the Venezuelan government unified the country’s two official exchange rates (4.3 and 2.6 bolivars per dollar) by eliminating the 2.6 bolivars per dollar rate, which was previously permitted for certain activities. This change did not, nor is expected to, have a material impact on our financial statements.
Exchange rate gains or losses related to foreign currency transactions are recognized as transaction gains or losses in our income statement as incurred. We may enter into derivatives, primarily forward contracts with terms of no more than two years, to manage our exposure to foreign currency transaction risk. Our foreign currency derivatives had a total face value of $1.7 billion as of December 25, 2010 and $1.2 billion as of December 26, 2009. The contracts that qualify for hedge accounting resulted in net unrealized losses of $15 million as of December 25, 2010 and $20 million as of December 26, 2009. At the end of 2010, we estimate that an unfavorable 10% change in the exchange rates would have increased our net unrealized losses by $119 million. The contracts that do not qualify for hedge accounting resulted in net losses of $6 million in 2010 and a net gain of $1 million in 2009. All losses and gains were offset by changes in the underlying hedged items, resulting in no net material impact on earnings.
We centrally manage our debt and investment portfolios considering investment opportunities and risks, tax consequences and overall financing strategies. We use various interest rate derivative instruments including, but not limited to, interest rate swaps, cross-currency interest rate swaps, Treasury locks and swap locks to manage our overall interest expense and foreign exchange risk. These instruments effectively change the interest rate and currency of specific debt issuances. Certain of our fixed rate indebtedness has been swapped to floating rates. The notional amount, interest payment and maturity date of the interest rate and cross-currency swaps match the principal, interest payment and maturity date of the related debt. Our Treasury locks and swap locks are entered into to protect against unfavorable interest rate changes relating to forecasted debt transactions.
Assuming year-end 2010 variable rate debt and investment levels, a 1-percentage-point increase in interest rates would have increased net interest expense by $43 million in 2010.
Risk Management Framework
The achievement of our strategic and operating objectives will necessarily involve taking risks. Our risk management process is intended to ensure that risks are taken knowingly and purposefully. As such, we leverage an integrated risk management framework to identify, assess, prioritize, manage, monitor and communicate risks across the Company. This framework includes:
• The PepsiCo Risk Committee (PRC), comprised of a cross-functional, geographically diverse, senior management group which meets regularly to identify, assess, prioritize and address strategic and reputational risks;
• Division Risk Committees (DRCs), comprised of cross-functional senior management teams which meet regularly to identify, assess, prioritize and address division-specific operating risks;
• PepsiCo's Risk Management Office, which manages the overall risk management process, provides ongoing guidance, tools and analytical support to the PRC and the DRCs, identifies and assesses potential risks and facilitates ongoing communication between the parties, as well as to PepsiCo’s Audit Committee and Board of Directors;
• PepsiCo Corporate Audit, which evaluates the ongoing effectiveness of our key internal controls through periodic audit and review procedures; and
• PepsiCo's Compliance Department, which leads and coordinates our compliance policies and practices.