Management's Discussion and Analysis
Our discussion and analysis is an integral part of our consolidated financial statements and is provided as an addition to, and should be read in connection with, our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Definitions of key terms can be found in the glossary. Tabular dollars are presented in millions, except per share amounts. All per share amounts reflect common per share amounts, assume dilution unless otherwise noted, and are based on unrounded amounts. Percentage changes are based on unrounded amounts.
We are a leading global food and beverage company with hundreds of brands that are respected household names throughout the world. Either independently or through contract manufacturers or authorized bottlers, we make, market, sell and distribute a variety of convenient and enjoyable foods and beverages in more than 200 countries and territories.
We continue to be guided by Performance with Purpose – our belief that what is good for business can and should be good for society. Our commitment to deliver sustainable growth by investing in a healthier future for people and our planet is as much of a financial decision as it is an ethical one. In 2011, PepsiCo earned a place on the prestigious Dow Jones Sustainability World Index for the fifth consecutive year, the North America Index for the sixth consecutive year and was ranked as the number one company in the index's Food and Beverage Supersector.
Our management monitors a variety of key indicators to evaluate our business results and financial condition. These indicators include market share, volume, net revenue, operating profit, management operating cash flow, earnings per share and return on invested capital.
Strategies to Drive Our Growth into the Future
We made important strides in 2011. In 2012, our journey continues. We are pursuing specific strategic investment and productivity initiatives to build a stronger, more successful company. This includes an increased investment in our iconic, global brands, bringing innovation to market and increasing our advertising and marketing spending by approximately $500–$600 million in 2012, the majority in North America. In addition, we have begun to implement a multi-year productivity program that we believe will further strengthen our complementary food and beverage businesses. These initiatives support our five strategic imperatives on which we continue to be focused.
Our first imperative is to build and extend our macrosnacks portfolio globally.
PepsiCo is the undisputed leader in macrosnacks around the world. We will work to grow our core salty snack brands – Lay's, Doritos, Cheetos and SunChips – while continuing to expand into adjacent categories like whole grain-based snacks. We will continue to create new flavors in tune with local tastes and leverage our go-to-market expertise to ensure our products are easily accessible in consumers' lives.
Our second imperative is to sustainably and profitably grow our beverage business worldwide.
Our beverage business remains large and highly profitable, accounting for approximately 52 percent of our net revenues in 2011. Our goal is to grow our developed market beverage business while building on promising gains in emerging and developing markets. We intend to continue to invest in and strengthen our most powerful and iconic beverage brands – Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Sierra Mist, 7UP (outside of the U.S.), Gatorade, Tropicana, Mirinda and Lipton (through our joint venture with Unilever).
Our third imperative is to build and expand our nutrition business.
Today, PepsiCo has three of the top brands in the category – Quaker, Tropicana and Gatorade – in a global market for health and wellness in consumer packaged goods that exceeds $500 billion, driven by strong demographic and consumer trends. Building from our core brands, we believe that we are well-positioned to grow our global nutrition portfolio.
Our fourth imperative is to increase and capitalize on the already high coincidence of snack and beverage consumption.
Snacks and beverages are complementary categories. When people reach for a salty snack, about 30 percent of the time, they reach for a carbonated beverage. Our ability to use that combined power goes beyond marketing – to innovation, production, distribution and brand management. We intend to increasingly capitalize on our cross-category presence to grow our positions in both snacks and beverages.
Our fifth imperative is to ensure prudent and responsible financial management.
Prudent financial management has always been a hallmark of PepsiCo. In 2012, we are bringing renewed focus to value creation in everything we do. We intend to continue to deliver attractive cash returns for shareholders by scrutinizing every capital expenditure, expense and working capital investment.
We are organized into four business units, as follows:
- PepsiCo Americas Foods (PAF), which includes Frito-Lay North America (FLNA), Quaker Foods North America (QFNA) and all of our Latin American food and snack businesses (LAF);
- PepsiCo Americas Beverages (PAB), which includes all of our North American and Latin American beverage businesses;
- PepsiCo Europe, which includes all of our beverage, food and snack businesses in Europe; and
- PepsiCo Asia, Middle East and Africa (AMEA), which includes all of our beverage, food and snack businesses in AMEA.
Our four business units are comprised of six reportable segments (referred to as divisions), as follows:
- Europe, and
Frito-Lay North America
Either independently or through contract manufacturers, FLNA makes, markets, sells and distributes branded snack foods. These foods include Lay's potato chips, Doritos tortilla chips, Cheetos cheese flavored snacks, Tostitos tortilla chips, branded dips, Ruffles potato chips, Fritos corn chips, SunChips multigrain snacks and Santitas tortilla chips. FLNA branded products are sold to independent distributors and retailers. In addition, FLNA's joint venture with Strauss Group makes, markets, sells and distributes Sabra refrigerated dips and spreads.
Quaker Foods North America
Either independently or through contract manufacturers, QFNA makes, markets, sells and distributes cereals, rice, pasta and other branded products. QFNA's products include Quaker oatmeal, Aunt Jemima mixes and syrups, Quaker Chewy granola bars, Quaker grits, Cap'n Crunch cereal, Life cereal, Rice-A-Roni side dishes, Quaker rice cakes, Pasta Roni and Near East side dishes. These branded products are sold to independent distributors and retailers.
Latin America Foods
Either independently or through contract manufacturers, LAF makes, markets, sells and distributes a number of snack food brands including Marias Gamesa, Doritos, Cheetos, Ruffles, Saladitas, Emperador, Tostitos and Sabritas, as well as many Quaker-brand cereals and snacks. These branded products are sold to independent distributors and retailers.
PepsiCo Americas Beverages
Either independently or through contract manufacturers, PAB makes, markets, sells and distributes beverage concentrates, fountain syrups and finished goods, under various beverage brands including Pepsi, Gatorade, Mountain Dew, Diet Pepsi, Aquafina, 7UP (outside the U.S.), Diet Mountain Dew, Tropicana Pure Premium, Sierra Mist and Mirinda. PAB also, either independently or through contract manufacturers, makes, markets and sells ready-to-drink tea, coffee and water products through joint ventures with Unilever (under the Lipton brand name) and Starbucks. In addition, PAB licenses the Aquafina water brand to its independent bottlers. Furthermore, PAB manufactures and distributes certain brands licensed from Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. (DPSG), including Dr Pepper and Crush. PAB operates its own bottling plants and distribution facilities. PAB also sells concentrate and finished goods for our brands to authorized bottlers, and some of these branded finished goods are sold directly by us to independent distributors and retailers. We and the independent bottlers sell our brands as finished goods to independent distributors and retailers.
PAB's volume reflects sales to its independent distributors and retailers, as well as the sales of beverages bearing our trademarks that bottlers have reported as sold to independent distributors and retailers. Bottler case sales (BCS) and concentrate shipments and equivalents (CSE) are not necessarily equal during any given period due to seasonality, timing of product launches, product mix, bottler inventory practices and other factors. However, the difference between BCS and CSE measures has been greatly reduced since our acquisitions of our anchor bottlers, The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. (PBG) and PepsiAmericas, Inc. (PAS), on February 26, 2010, as we now consolidate these bottlers and thus eliminate the impact of differences between BCS and CSE for a substantial majority of PAB's total volume. While our revenues are not entirely based on BCS volume, as there continue to be independent bottlers in the supply chain, we believe that BCS is a valuable measure as it quantifies the sell-through of our products at the consumer level.
See Note 15 for additional information about our acquisitions of PBG and PAS in 2010.
Either independently or through contract manufacturers, Europe makes, markets, sells and distributes a number of leading snack foods including Lay's, Walkers, Doritos, Chudo, Cheetos and Ruffles, as well as many Quaker-brand cereals and snacks, through consolidated businesses as well as through noncontrolled affiliates. Europe also, either independently or through contract manufacturers, makes, markets, sells and distributes beverage concentrates, fountain syrups and finished goods under various beverage brands including Pepsi, Pepsi Max, 7UP, Diet Pepsi and Tropicana. These branded products are sold to authorized bottlers, independent distributors and retailers. In certain markets, however, Europe operates its own bottling plants and distribution facilities. In addition, Europe licenses the Aquafina water brand to certain of its authorized bottlers and markets this brand. Europe also, either independently or through contract manufacturers, makes, markets and sells ready-to-drink tea products through an international joint venture with Unilever (under the Lipton brand name).
Europe reports two measures of volume. Snacks volume is reported on a system-wide basis, which includes our own sales and the sales by our noncontrolled affiliates of snacks bearing Company-owned or licensed trademarks. Beverage volume reflects Company-owned or authorized bottler sales of beverages bearing Company-owned or licensed trademarks to independent distributors and retailers (see PepsiCo Americas Beverages above). In 2011, we acquired Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods OJSC (WBD), Russia's leading branded food and beverage company. WBD's portfolio of products is included within Europe's snacks or beverage reporting, depending on product type.
See Note 15 for additional information about our acquisition of WBD in 2011.
Asia, Middle East & Africa
Either independently or through contract manufacturers, AMEA makes, markets, sells and distributes a number of leading snack food brands including Lay's, Chipsy, Kurkure, Doritos, Cheetos and Smith's through consolidated businesses as well as through noncontrolled affiliates. Further, either independently or through contract manufacturers, AMEA makes, markets and sells many Quaker-brand cereals and snacks. AMEA also makes, markets, sells and distributes beverage concentrates, fountain syrups and finished goods, under various beverage brands including Pepsi, Mirinda, 7UP, Mountain Dew, Aquafina and Tropicana. These branded products are sold to authorized bottlers, independent distributors and retailers. However, in certain markets, AMEA operates its own bottling plants and distribution facilities. In addition, AMEA licenses the Aquafina water brand to certain of its authorized bottlers. AMEA also, either independently or through contract manufacturers, makes, markets and sells ready-to-drink tea products through an international joint venture with Unilever (under the Lipton brand name). AMEA reports two measures of volume (see Europe above).
Our primary customers include wholesale distributors, grocery stores, convenience stores, mass merchandisers, membership stores, authorized independent bottlers and foodservice distributors, including hotels and restaurants. We normally grant our independent bottlers exclusive contracts to sell and manufacture certain beverage products bearing our trademarks within a specific geographic area. These arrangements provide us with the right to charge our independent bottlers for concentrate, finished goods and Aquafina royalties and specify the manufacturing process required for product quality.
Since we do not sell directly to the consumer, we rely on and provide financial incentives to our customers to assist in the distribution and promotion of our products. For our independent distributors and retailers, these incentives include volume-based rebates, product placement fees, promotions and displays. For our independent bottlers, these incentives are referred to as bottler funding and are negotiated annually with each bottler to support a variety of trade and consumer programs, such as consumer incentives, advertising support, new product support, and vending and cooler equipment placement. Consumer incentives include coupons, pricing discounts and promotions, and other promotional offers. Advertising support is directed at advertising programs and supporting independent bottler media. New product support includes targeted consumer and retailer incentives and direct marketplace support, such as point-of-purchase materials, product placement fees, media and advertising. Vending and cooler equipment placement programs support the acquisition and placement of vending machines and cooler equipment. The nature and type of programs vary annually.
In 2011, sales to Wal-Mart (including Sam's) represented approximately 11% of our total net revenue. Our top five retail customers represented approximately 30% of our 2011 North American net revenue, with Wal-Mart (including Sam's) representing approximately 18%. These percentages include concentrate sales to our independent bottlers which were used in finished goods sold by them to these retailers.
Our Distribution Network
Our products are brought to market through direct-store-delivery (DSD), customer warehouse and foodservice and vending distribution networks. The distribution system used depends on customer needs, product characteristics and local trade practices.
We, our independent bottlers and our distributors operate DSD systems that deliver snacks and beverages directly to retail stores where the products are merchandised by our employees or our bottlers. DSD enables us to merchandise with maximum visibility and appeal. DSD is especially well-suited to products that are restocked often and respond to in-store promotion and merchandising.
Some of our products are delivered from our manufacturing plants and warehouses to customer warehouses and retail stores. These less costly systems generally work best for products that are less fragile and perishable, have lower turnover, and are less likely to be impulse purchases.
Foodservice and Vending
Our foodservice and vending sales force distributes snacks, foods and beverages to third-party foodservice and vending distributors and operators. Our foodservice and vending sales force also distributes certain beverages through our independent bottlers. This distribution system supplies our products to restaurants, businesses, schools, stadiums and similar locations.
Our businesses operate in highly competitive markets. Our beverage, snack and food brands compete against global, regional, local and private label manufacturers and other value competitors.
In U.S. measured channels, our chief beverage competitor, The Coca-Cola Company, has a larger share of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) consumption, while we have a larger share of liquid refreshment beverages consumption. In addition, The Coca-Cola Company has a significant CSD share advantage in many markets outside the United States.
Our snack and food brands hold significant leadership positions in the snack and food industry worldwide.
Our beverage, snack and food brands compete on the basis of price, quality, product variety and distribution. Success in this competitive environment is dependent on effective promotion of existing products, the introduction of new products and the effectiveness of our advertising campaigns, marketing programs, product packaging, pricing, increased efficiency in production techniques and brand and trademark development and protection. We believe that the strength of our brands, innovation and marketing, coupled with the quality of our products and flexibility of our distribution network, allows us to compete effectively.
Certain members of our Board of Directors also serve on the boards of certain vendors and customers. Those Board members do not participate in our vendor selection and negotiations nor in our customer negotiations. Our transactions with these vendors and customers are in the normal course of business and are consistent with terms negotiated with other vendors and customers. In addition, certain of our employees serve on the boards of Pepsi Bottling Ventures LLC and other affiliated companies of PepsiCo and do not receive incremental compensation for their Board services.Back Next